Stork L, Brück W, von Gottberg P, Pulkowski U, Kirsten F, Glatzel M, Rauer S, Scheibe F, Radbruch H, Hammer E, Stürner KH, Kaulen B, Heesen C, Hoffmann F, Brock S, Pawlitzki M, Bopp T, Metz I.

BACKGROUND: Daclizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor and was approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Due to severe inflammatory brain disorders, the approval was suspended in March 2018.OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study summarizes clinical, laboratory, radiological, and histological findings of seven patients who developed meningo-/encephalitis after daclizumab therapy. RESULTS: Patients presented with encephalitis and/or meningitis and suffered from systemic symptoms such as fever (5/7), exanthema (5/7), or gastrointestinal symptoms (4/7). Secondary autoimmune diseases developed. Blood analysis revealed an increase in eosinophils (5/7). Six patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple contrast-enhancing lesions, and enhancement of the ependyma (6/7), meninges (5/7), cranial or spinal nerves (2/7), and a vasculitic pattern (3/7). Histology revealed a pronounced inflammatory infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils, and densely infiltrated vessels. Most patients showed an insufficient therapeutic response and a high disability at last follow-up (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 8). Two patients died. CONCLUSION: Meningoencephalitis and DRESS may occur with daclizumab therapy. This potential lethal side effect is characterized by a dysregulated immune response. Our findings underline the importance of postmarketing drug surveillance.

Mult Scler. 2019 Oct;25(12):1618-1632

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