Oqueka T, Galow S, Simon M, Weidmann A, Stübiger N, Zengin-Sahm E, Sinning C, Krusche M, Ruffer N, Steurer S, Schick-Bengardt X, Sebode M, Horst LJ, Steinmetz OM, Melderis S, Rosenkranz SC, Möller K, Jantke H, Klose H
Sarcoidosis is the most frequent immunologically related granulomatous disease and can serve as a model for understanding diseases within this category. The evidence on the diagnostics and treatment is so far limited. It is therefore all the more important that two new and significant guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of sarcoidosis were published during the last 2 years. Additionally, there were more new publications, which were considered for this review article. In this context, this review article provides a current update and overview of sarcoidosis. Pathophysiologically, there is an increasing understanding of the complex processes and interactions involved in the inflammatory processes and granuloma formation. The probability of a diagnosis of sarcoidosis is determined by compatible histology, the exclusion of differential diagnoses and if possible evidence of a multiorgan manifestation. The clinical course is variable and ranges from an asymptomatic manifestation to severe life-threatening organ failure. The most frequently affected organ are the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis is the most severe form and is also decisive for mortality. An increasing focus is on the extrapulmonary organ manifestations, in particular, cardiac, hepatosplenic, gastrointestinal, renal, ocular and neurological involvement. Treatment, which consists primarily of immunosuppression, should be initiated in cases of organ-threatening or quality of life-impairing activity of the disease. Additional organ-specific management must also be evaluated. In cases of organ failure transplantation should be considered. Due to the limited evidence especially for the treatment of multiorgan sarcoidosis, when possible, patients with this disease should be included in clinical trials.
Z Rheumatol. 2022 Sep;81(7):535-548
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