Mayer Ch, Woo MS,Brehm TT, Heyer A, Fischer M, Fischbach F, Bal LC, Addo MM, Kluge S,Thomalla G, Schweingruber N, Schulze zur Wiesch J.

Background and purpose: This study aimed to investigate if pre-existing neurological conditions, such as dementia and a history of cerebrovascular disease, increase the risk of severe outcomes including death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and vascular events in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 2022, when Omicron was the predominant variant. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction test, admitted to the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf from 20 December 2021 until 15 August 2022. In all, 1249 patients were included in the study. In-hospital mortality was 3.8% and the ICU admission rate was 9.9%. Ninety-three patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and 36 patients with pre-existing all-cause dementia were identified and propensity score matching by age, sex, comorbidities, vaccination status and dexamethasone treatment was performed in a 1:4 ratio with patients without the respective precondition using nearest neighbor matching. Results: Analysis revealed that neither pre-existing cerebrovascular disease nor all-cause dementia increased mortality or the risk for ICU admission. All-cause dementia in the medical history also had no effect on vascular complications under investigation. In contrast, an increased odds ratio for both pulmonary artery embolism and secondary cerebrovascular events was observed in patients with pre-existing chronic cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction in the medical history. Conclusion: These findings suggest that patients with pre-existing cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction in their medical history may be particularly susceptible to vascular complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection with presumed Omicron variant.

Eur J Neurol. 2023 Aug;30(8):2297-2304

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